The Ultimate Guide of Paint – Types of Paint, Why we should paint, Composition of paint.

Published by Rachit on

Paint is one of the fastest, easiest and cost-effective ways to change or refresh the color of a room. A new coat of paint can make a major impact and provide direct results. Before choosing the types of paint for a specific application, its physical properties must be considered. In this post, we are studying the composition of paint, why we should paint our house regularly, different types of paints available in the market. After this, you can find the best paint for your home design work.

types of paint

The composition of Paint:

There are four main parts to paint: pigment, binder, Solvent, and Additive.


The pigment is color and can occur in the form of naturally occurring plant or mineral colors, and man-made chemical compounds.

Pigments can protect the substrate from UV light. Pigments adjust the paint look (gloss level) and have properties such as increased stiffness and decreasing ductility. Pigment provides the texture and color of the paint. Pigments can be made from natural, synthetic, inorganic, or organic materials.

Commonly used pigments are titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, yellow dyes, carbon black, iron oxide, etc. Low-cost pigments materials cannot be finely grounded because finer pigments can grind.

You can tell if the paint is good by rubbing between the tips of your thumb and index finger. If the paint looks gritty, it is more than likely that there is either a cheap pigment or a lot of cheap filler – such as clay. This type of paint will generally not last as long as paint that contains mostly titanium dioxide or iron oxides that are very smooth to the touch.


Binder is the main component of paints. There is a binder that holds the pigment particles together and provides adhesion to the painted surface. Without the binder, the paint will dry and fall off.

Water-based paints most often use acrylic emulsion polymers as binders. These come in a wide variety and combinations. The common acrylic polymer is formed on monomers such as methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate.

Traditionally, low-cost paints have been produced on PVA (polyvinyl acetate) binders. Solvent-based resins provide a wide range of types. Common solvent-based resins are named ‘alkyd resins’, commonly used in enamel paints. Urethane alkyds are often used in clear varnishes. Protective coating resins include types such as epoxy, urethane, polysiloxane, and moisturized cure urethane.


The solvent is what makes it a pain-table, using either a brush, roller, or spray. Solvent – to act as a carrier for pigments and resin. The solvent in water-based paint is water. In oil-based paints, the solvent is diluted (petrochemical distillation).

Both processes are referred to as drying when water is evaporating out of latex paint and when the oil is diluting out of the base paint. Solvents aid in their special pigments and solutions and they penetrate deep into the surface to be painted before evaporation. After the solvents evaporate, they leave a thin hard layer of pigment and binder that we know as paint.

The binder (resin) and solvent are sometimes referred to as vehicles.


These are often the solution when certain properties must be manipulated or enhanced. Additives are often available to improve color strength, brightness, blur, brightness, opacity, etc. without affecting viscosity.

Depending on the intended use and type of paint, additives may include:

  • Dispersants – To separate and stabilize pigment particles,
  • Drier –  To speed up the drying time,
  • Silicones – To improve weather resistance,
  • Thixotropic Agent – To give the paint a jelly-like consistency that breaks into a liquid when stirred or when a brush is immersed in it,
  • Fungicides and algaecides – to protect exterior paint films against wastage from molds, algae, and lichen,
    anti-settling agent – to prevent pigment settling,

Why Should We Paint our Home?

Protect Surfaces:

Exterior paint offers protection to your home from temperature, weather, and external elements. Interior paint is used to protect walls, doors, and trim. Paint reduces damage from dampness and also help surfaces hold up longer from regular wear and tear.

Beautified Home:

Paint gives the chance to transform or update the look of any room in the house. If you have an old home and your personal liking for design have changed or you want to design your home to the latest trend style, painting the walls with a different combination of color can make the big change. Nobody creates a home appearance fresh and new inside and out than a new paint job. White or light paint can benefit small rooms and spaces to visually look bigger.

Repair the Surface:

After some year the condition of the paint on your walls will indicate signs of wear. This is caused due to scratches due to children play or some furniture movement, or hole in the walls for a different purpose. Paint condition also affected due to high dust and dirt. Whatever reason for that, a new coat of paint will hide up wear and create your walls look good as new.

Increased the value of home:

If you want to sell your home, Painting the house will increase the market value and also help in the quick sell of your home. Even if you’re not considering selling any time soon, spending on the maintenance of your home will give you a good return on investment at the time of sale and also increase the life of your home.

Improve the Air Quality of the home:

Paint is a good way to reduce the amount of dust and dirt circulating in the air. Painting your home with low VOC (volatile organic Compounds) or Zero VOC paint will reduce odors and increase air quality for you.

Reduce the termite attack:

Painting and staining can have the result of sealing off weaknesses and parts that may be targeted by termites, that decreasing the possibility of these pests making their way into your house. There are also termite-proof paint types that simply add another protective layer onto the surface to keep termites at bay.

Types of Paint used in Home Design

Before choosing the types of paint for a specific application, its physical properties must be considered.

Oil-based and water-based Paint:

Paint is mainly divided into water-based paint and oil-based paint. Oil-based paint has properties like drying and curing times take longer, more durable, cleaning brush paint requires harsh chemical, provides a much smoother and better-looking finish. Oil-based paint applied on surfaces that take regular beatings and wearing-like exteriors, floors, doors, trim, and furniture.

Water-based paint has properties like drying and curing takes less time than oil-based paint, less durable, more common than oil-based paint. This paint is good for a surface that won’t get a whole portion of wear and tear-like interior walls and ceilings. It is mostly used this day, around 75% of paint present at most hardware or paint stores is water-based.


Primers are also recognized as the sealers. They are not accurately the paints but slightly the base or undercoating. Primer’s role is to combine the materials and at the same time to clean the surface from dust, smoke, fat, and other impurities. It is not mandatory to provide this coating in all painting project, but if you’re painting on unfinished walls then must apply a coat of primer before you start painting.

Oil-based primer works well with oil-based paints. The substrate is purchased in a pack of 1 liter or larger packs and diluted with water in a proportion of 1:9. After finishing the coat with a brush or roller, it takes about 45 minutes or the entire hour to dry.

Commonly used types of Paint in Recent times:

Oil paint:

In Oil paints white lead use as a base, Oil Paints are applied in three coats: primer, undercoat, and finish coat. Oil paints can available in matte and glossy finishes.

If the surface of the application is smooth a glossy finish is recommended. If the surface has undulations that cannot be covered by putty, it is advised to use mat finish. The use of glossy finish will make these undulations to be seen evidently. They are easy to the application, and painted surfaces are easy to clean.

Oil paint is generally used in Doors, windows, metal structures, and walls. Oil paint is not the right choice for most situations. It takes time to dry completely.

Enamel Paint:

This paint is created by mixing lead or zinc to varnish. Stains (pigments) are added to make a wide range of colors. Enamel paints procedure hard and glossy coatings, which are easy to clean. Enamel paint is waterproof and chemically resistant. Provide good coverage and color retention.

Enamel paint is used for interior and exterior walls, wood surfaces, also surface like masonry, concrete, plaster, glass, and metal.

Emulsion Paint:

Emulsion paints have a polyvinyl acetate and polystyrene as binding materials. They use driers like cobalt and manganese. Emulsion paint can be water or oil-based, and stains are used for the preferred color. Emulsion paints are fast drying and hardening, also easy to clean with water. Enamel paints provide good color retention, durability, and alkali resistance.

Emulsion paints are generally used for interior walls, ceilings, and masonry work. Specific types of emulsion paints can be used for woodwork.

Cement paint:

This paint comes in powder form, which is mixed with water to reach the required paint consistency. White or color cement is used as the base material. It also includes stains and other additives. This paint is waterproof and durable. It is generally used on rough surfaces.

Cement paint has a long drying time of up to 24 hours. Cement paint should be applied in two coats to stop dampness problems.

Bituminous paint:

Bituminous paint is made from dissolved asphalt or tar, which provides it a black color. This paint is waterproof and alkali-resistant, but not appropriate for sun-exposed surface because it fades.

Bituminous paint is generally used in a concrete foundation, wooden surface, iron pipe, and underwater ironwork. It also gives rust resistance to the metal surface.

types of paint

Aluminum paint:

Aluminum Particles made by mixing aluminum particles with oil varnish. This type of paint is resistant to corrosion, electricity, and weather exposure. After the application of aluminum paint over a metal or wood surface, the spirit or oil varnish will evaporate. After evaporation, a thin metallic film of aluminum is left on the surface painted.

This paint gives a high covering capacity. A liter of paint can cover an area of about 200 This Paint is visible in the darkness, resist heat to a certain degree, better protection from corrosion. This paint is used for special purposes like a gas tank, oil tank, water pipe, and radiators.

types of paint

Synthetic rubber paint:

Synthetic rubber paint is made from dissolved synthetic resins, and also contain pigments. This paint has a little high price and its main advantage are chemical resistance, fast-drying, and weather resistance. This paint is generally used for concrete surfaces.

Cellulose paint:

Cellulose paint is made from celluloid sheets, photographic films, and amyl acetate. The bond can be made better by the addition of castor oil. This paint surfaces can be easily washed after the paint has dried. Cellulose paint has like quick-drying, smooth finish, and hardness. Also provide resistance to water, smoke, and acids. Cellulose paint is generally used in cars and airplanes. The main drawback of cellulose paint is its high rate.

Plastic paint:

The plastic paints consist of a variety of plastics as a base and the water as a thinner. This is available in attractive colors. After drying, the water will evaporate and will provide an attractive colored surface. This paint can be used for painting the walls and ceilings of the auditorium, showrooms, etc.

Anti-corrosive Paint:

This paint basically is made of oil and a strong drier. A pigment such as lead or chromium oxide or zinc chrome is in use and after mixing it with some quantity of very fine sand, it is added to the paint. Anti-corrosive paint has black in color, and it is durable and cheap. It is generally used for Pipes and metallic surfaces.

Silicate Paint:

Silicate paint is prepared from a mix of silica and resinous materials. After the dried, the paint forms a hard surface and it is durable. It provides extreme heat resistance and it sticks to firmly to brickwork also. It is also alkali resistance. These types of paint should not be applied on the surface in the hot weather. This type of paint when applied to the metal surfaces, no chemical action takes place. Hence, this type of paint is generally used in metal structures.

Types of Paint-Based on finishes

Flat Finish:

Flat paint is very affordable but doesn’t give off a very vibrant look. The flat paint is the less durable paint finish that you can purchase. This means that it will be prone to becoming damaged. This finish is not washed easily and is subject to stain. These types of paint finish are normally used in a room that does not get a lot of use.

Matte Finish:

This finish is normally like to flat finish, but such paints normally provide more washability and coverage. This is less shiny compare to all finishes available. This finish provides great depth of color and a very wide varies of textures. Because of its texture, it can be difficult to clean sometime. This finish can hide scratched parts of your ceiling or little flaws a bit easier when using a matte paint.

Eggshell Finish:

This finish is the next stage from the matte finish. When you look at an egg crate correctly, it will still look somewhat matte. This finish provides good washing ability but is not very useful in hiding imperfections on walls and other surfaces. This finish is good for the bathroom as it is a water repellent. So that there is no possibility of covering in a wet environment.

Satin Finish:

This finish has a good amount of wash resistance and moisture resistance as compared to egg whiteness. This protects the walls from dirt, moisture, and stains. Thus, it is very valuable for bathrooms, furniture, and kitchens. This finish is more prone to exposing flaws as it is shinier than eggs.

Semi-Gloss Paint:

If you want a paint that is going to stand out and pop out visually, then you may want to consider buying semi-gloss paint. It is a types of paint that are very good looking and will be very attractive.

This finish is used on woodwork such as doors and furniture to highlight detail and elegance. It provides a shiny surface and a good shield from moisture and stains on the walls. It is commonly used in schools and factories where evaporation and sustainability are major concerns. The main drawback is that its glossy finish exposes imperfections on walls and other surfaces.

Gloss Paint:

It is a very polished and super shiny form of finish paint. This can help make the walls of your house stand out and will provide lots of beauty. When you are going to look classy in your home, using gloss paint is a very sensible option. It gives the finished surface that reflects light like a mirror.

This finish is very durable and easy to clean. Shine finish reflects air and reflects more light. This means that any imperfections on your walls will become quite apparent. This can be an annoyance, depending on the condition of your walls. Gloss paint is an expensive type of finish that you can buy.

People use this type of paint for painting furniture, cabinets, and even fireplaces. You can of course use this type of paint on your walls, but you only need to be prepared for it to reflect light and clear flaws. It is high-quality paint that will work excellently for certain purposes.

Different Types of Tiles and its use with picture


As seen above, there are different types of paints and their uses are really different. The purpose of using paint in construction includes visual appeal, surface durability, chemical safety, and insect protection. Finally, These types of paints are made for special use – appropriate paint choice can cut project costs while increasing performance.

Please ask a question or provide feedback in a comment.

Categories: Material


Civil Engineer


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